Truck Driver and Use of Mobile-Phone While Driving.
Of the 515 respondents, 234 (45%) indicated that they use a cell phone while driving.
August 22, 2019
Joseph B.Claveria et al.
School of Civil and Construction Engineering, Oregon State University.
Evaluation of Cell Phone Induced Driver Behaviour at a Type 2 Dilemma Zone.
Call receiving, call dialing, texting, chatting, or even a simple conversation can increase the chances of decision impairment while driving.
February 13, 2018
Ziaur Rahman et al
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX.
The Dimensions of Cell Phone Use Dependence.
This is a qualitative study to understand dependence. 84% of the Earth's population is already addicted to their cell phone.
George B. Van Wie.
The Cellphone Manifestio.
46% of Americans say they could not live without their smartphones.
University of Pennsylvania.
Behavior Economic and Social Variables Influencing Cell-phone Distracted Driving.
Behaviors like, unable to delay gratification,impulsively, delay discounting, drug abuse and mobile-phone dependence increases the urge to use mobile-phone while driving. Whereas, presence of passengers in the car and less distance to the destination decreases the urge to use mobile-phone while driving.
Brittany L. Ingersoll.
California State University, Chico
Understanding Driver's Distraction.
The link between behaviour, performance and safety outcomes could not be discerned for all technologies and their associated functions.
March 15, 2017
Mitchell L. Cunningham et al.
The Australian Road Research Board (ARRB), Sydney, Australia
SPIDER is an acronym standing for scanning, predicting, Identifying, decision making, and executing a response when drivers engage in secondary activities unrelated to the task of driving these activities are impaired.
David L. Strayer andDonald L. Fisher.
University of Utah, Salt Lake City.
The Relationship of Cellphone Usage to Personality and Attention.
Results revealed that thosewho use their cell phones more often tend to have higher neuroticism and withdrawal,cell phones are not distracting in a classroom setting, and males and females generallytext for the same purposes.
Victoria L. Grajeda.
Dominican University of California.
Nsc Releases Latest Injury and Fatility Statistics and Trends.
Cell phone use is now estimated to be involved in 26 percent of all motor vehicle crashes
March 25, 2014
National Safety Council.
Distracted Driving; Cellular Phone Use Among Motorists in the Sekondi-takoradi Metropolis, Ghana.
9868 motorists were observed, of which 2.6% were using cellular phones.
Solomon Ntow Densu.
Department of Civil Engineering, Takoradi Polytechnic.
From Bicycle Crashes to Measures.
This research emphasizes on the measures that should be taken for the safety of cyclist.
Divera Twisk et al.
SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research.
Effects of Mobile Telephone Tasks on Driving Performance.
Reaction time generally increases while using mobile equipment. The analysis demonstrates that the increasing of the reaction time is significant only in the urban scenario. Conversely there are no significant effects on driving performance for motorway and rural road.
January 25, 2012
A.Benedetto et al
Department of Sciences of Civil Engineering, University of Roma Tre, Rome, Italy.
Connection Without Caution.
Most of the young people in the sample reported using theirmobile phone while driving at least once or twice a week forsending texts (53%), reading texts (65%), making calls (60%)and answering calls (69%), with about a third of participantsreporting that they performed one of these behaviours at leastdaily.
Katherine M White et al.
Queensland University of Technology.
Gender Effects in Mobile Phone Distraction from Driving.
Women's driving performance while talking on a cell phone is more impaired than the impairment of men. Men's impairments to driving were worse when talking with a passenger in the car. Both sexes suffer impairment to driving due to the mental load involved in a conversation. Women's driving errors tended to be lateral (inability to maintain lane), and men, longitudinally, (braking time.). Conclusion of study is gender should be considered in analysis.
Julia D. Irwin et al.
Macquarie University, Australia.
Driving and Telephoning.
Sixty-two percent of respondents reported that they use mobilephones while driving - ever.
September 14, 2010
Agathe Backer-Grøndahl and Fridulv Sagberg.
Institute of Transport Economics.
85% of the variance of the workload ratings.
October 19, 2010
Paul A. Green.
University of Michigan
The Effects of In-vehicle Task and Time Gap Selection.
Time-gap settings for the experimental ACC were: shorter than 1.0 s, 1.0-1.5 s,1.5-2.0 s, and longer than 2.0 s.
December 24, 2007
Tsang-Wei Lin et al.
National Tsing Hua University.
Dialling and Driving.
38% of participants reported drivingmainly for personal purposes; 24% equal personal and business; and 38% drove mainly forMobile phone use while drivingbusiness (i.e., work-related) purposes.
Shari P. Walsha et al.
Queensland University of Technology.
Use of Mobile Phone While Driving-effects on Road Safty.
More than 2/3rd of drivers use a mobile phone at least sometimes while driving and are inclined to riskier behaviour.
NinaDragutinovic and DiveraTwisk.
SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research.
Cell Phones and Driving Performance
Using mobile-phone while driving increases reaction time. Conversation tasks, in general, showed greater costs in driving performance than did information processing tasks. This may be due to the greater "engagement" associated with actual conversations
William J. Horrey et al.
University of Illinois.
What Do Drivers Fail to See When Conversing on a Cell Phone?
Dual-task performance was 60% of that obtained in single-task condition resulting inattention-blindness.
David L. Strayer et al.
University of Utah.
Stress State of a Driver.
While using mobile phone during driving heart is 87.5 beats/ min in normal situation whereas in emergency it goes up to 120.234 beats/ min.
Shandong Jiaotong University.
Association Between Cellular-telephone Calls and Motor Vehicle Collisions
The use of cellular telephones in motorvehicles is associated with a quadrupling of therisk of a collision during the brief period of a call.
Donald. A. Redelmeier and Robert. J. Tibshirani.
The New EnglandJournalofMedicine.
Mobile Phone Use While Driving.
Irrespective of handset type, 43% of drivers reported answering calls while driving on adaily basis, followed by making calls (36%), reading text messages (27%), and sendingtext messages (18%).
Katherine M. White et al.
School of Psychology and Counselling, Queens.
Why Language Interfere with Driving.
Visual=87.5%, Motor=84.9%,Abstract=81.8% interference on driving.
Benjamin Bergen et al.
University of California.
Investigating Driving and Divided Attention.
Problems with driving may arise when cognitive resource demands exceed resource availability. Users may often overestimate their ability to divide their attention with a secondary tasks
because of the sense that driving is nearly automatic.
Shamsi T. Iqbal et al.
Engrossed in conversation: The impact of cell phones on simulated driving performance
The adverse effects of talking while driving were clear in the present study. Participants coped with the demands of engaging in a phone conversation while driving by narrowing their attention, shedding peripheral tasks and focusing on more immediate tasks. In the talking conditions, participants committed more trafﬁc violations.
October 25, 2005
Kristen E. Beede, Steven J. Kass
University of West Florida, Department of Psychology
Situation awareness and workload in driving while using cruise control and a cell phone
Ther research found that Adaptive Cruise Control help reduce driver's mental workload and help drivers have more situational awareness, but the benefits were off-set by the workload increase due to the use of a cell phone.
April 11, 2005
Ruiqui Ma and David B. Kaber
Department of Industrial Engineering, North Carolina State University
Phone use and crashes while driving: a representative survey of drivers in two Australian states
This study shows by survey that approximately 1% of people who used a cell phone while driving had crashed in the past year and 3% have had to take evasive actions due to their distraction.
December 18, 2006
Suzanne P McEvoy, Mark R Stevenson and Mark Woodward
Motor Accidents Authority of NSW
The Prevalence of Cell Phone Use while Driving in a Canadian Province
When asked if cell phone use was likely to result in a collision, 71.2 percent of respondents stated that they ‘strongly’ agreed, and 23.3 percent reported that they agreed ‘somewhat’. Half (52%) of the respondents used cell phones while driving in the past 12 months. Sex, Age & Income also affected decision to use phone with Men more likely to use phone while driving.
Abu Sadat Nurullah, Jasmine Thomas
University of Alberta, Department of Sociology
Driver’s exposure to distractions in their natural driving environment
Driver's cars were equipped with cameras. 34.3% of drivers used there cell phones while driving and did so for 3.8% of the time they were driving.
June 4, 2004
Jane Stutts, John Feaganes, Donald Reinfurt et al
University of North Carolina, Highway Safety Research Center
Do in-car devices affect experienced users' driving performance?
Most secondary tasks lead to a decrease in driving speed, while visual–manual tasks additionally take drivers' eyes of the road, deteriorating lateral performance. Regarding mobile phone conversations per se, it seems reasonable to suggest that drivers may well be able to compensate for the distracting effects of the conversation by slowing down.
Allert S. Knapper, Marjan P. Hagenzieker, Karel A. Brookhuis
IATSS Research (2014)
Driver’s lane keeping ability with eyes off road: Insights from a naturalistic study
Driver inattention was placed into two categories based on whether drivers were looking forward toward the roadway (inattention with eyes-on-road) or not looking forward (inattention with eyes-off-road) while engaged in a secondary task. Cell phone use fits both categories
Yiyun Penga, Linda Ng Boylea,b, Shauna L. Hallmark
University of Washington, Seattle, WA & Iowa State University, Ames, IA
The emotional side of cognitive distraction: Implications for road safety
Of neutral words, negative emotional words, and positive emotional words, the ﬁndings
suggest that driving performance is differentially affected by the valence (negative versus positive) of the emotional content. Drivers had lower mean speeds when there were emotional words compared to neutral words, and this slowing effect lasted longer when there were positive words.
Michelle Chana, Anthony Singhal
Department of Psychology / Centre for Neuroscience, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta
Driving while using a smartphone-based mobility application
The visual-manual distraction created by smartphones was deeply researched. This research gets into the weeds of which type of interaction with a phone is worse. The "Fixation Time"; the time a user is focused on the phone and not paying attention to driving varies by activity. "Searching" creates approximately a 5-second fixation, Browsing, 4 seconds, and Help function 2 seconds. Detailed study of "swiping" vs. lists.
November 28, 2015
N. Louveton, R. McCall, V. Koenig, T. Avanesov, T. Engel
Interdisciplinary Centre for Security, Reliability and Trust, Weicker Building, Universitie du Luxembourg
Glance analysis of driver eye movements to evaluate distraction
Eye movement narrows when a user is active in a cognitive task such as talking on the phone. Essentially, checking the rearview mirror requires a single-glance task, and checking the odometer multiple glancing. Cell phone use creates tunnel vision. This study is focused on methods for measuring eye movement.
Manbir Sodhi, Bryan Reimer, and Ignacio Llamazares
Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Rhode Island